Peter Lloyd Nara

Chairman Emeritus
Department of Biomedical Sciences
Private Compnay- Biological Mimetics, Inc.
Journal Associated: Annals of Antivirals and Antiretrovirals Biography:

Dr. Nara holds a M.Sc. in Immuno-pharmacology, a combined Doctor of Veterinary Medicine and Ph.D. (retro-virology/oncogenesis) from The Ohio State University, 4 year combined residency in Comparative Pathology and NIH post-doctoral Fellowship at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and a NIH respectively. Dr. Nara currently holds the Endowed Eugene Lloyd Chair, Professor in Vaccinology, founding Center Director for the Center for Advanced Host Defense, Immunobiotics, and Translational Comparative Medicine in the Department of Biomedical Sciences, in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Iowa State University and also the Chief Executive Officer, President, Chairman & co-founder of Biological Mimetics, Inc.,. He is also an distinguished Alumni of The Ohio State University College of Veterinary Medicine and an elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2011. His comparative medical research interests are to more fully understand how early and pre-determined events in the host innate and acquired immune systems are sculpted and bias the development of protective long lasting responses against infectious pathogens and cancer and more importantly developing new technologies and strategies to circumvent the non-protective immune responses for the development of novel classes of immunobiotics and vaccines focused on the prevention of disease and are translating these into viably products via a new academic- private-commercial model. He has been and continues as National and International member of numerous programs at the National Academy of Science, Institutes of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of Defense, and Centers for Disease Control AIDS, World Health Organization, United Nations Global AIDS Characterization program–related and infectious diseases national planning, human and animal agricultural biodefense, vaccine development & policy reporting meetings involving pathogenesis, vaccine discovery, standardization, correlates of protection committees and consults and serves on numerous scientific advisory boards of corporate, private foundations and academic initiatives in the area of national biodefense, comparative medicine and immunology, vaccine discovery and immuno-therapeutics and a recent member of the U.S. State Department Bio-Industry Initiative Program, The Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CDRF) and The International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) for non-proliferation of biological agents.

Research Interest:

Host defences pathogen host interactions,  molecular mechanisms of pathogen escape from host defences, vaccinology, immunology, immunopathology, comparative medicine, oncology, precision medicine 

URL Professional Website Link:

List of Publications:

1.    Nara, P.L., Krakowka, S., and Powers, T.E.:  Effects of prednisolone on the development of immune responses to canine distemper virus in beagle pups.  Am. J. Vet. Res. 40: 1742 1748, 1979. 

 2.    Nara, P.L., Davis, L.E., Lauerman, L., Coyle, J., and Paul, J.: The effects of chloramphenicol on the immune responses to canine distemper virus in beagle pups.  J. Vet. Pharmacol. Ther. 5:  177-185, 1982. 

 3.    Olsen, C.G., Stiff, M.I., and Nara, P.L.:  Collection and growth of canine lymphocytes from Peyer's patches.  J. Tissue Cult. Methods 7:  103, 1982.
 4.    Nara, P.L., Krakowka, G.S., Powers, T.E., and Garg, R.C.: Experimental streptococcus equi infection in the horse:  Correla¬tion of in vivo, in vitro immune responses.  Am. J. Vet. Res. 44: 529 534, 1983.

 5.    Nara, P.L., Winters, K., Rice, J.B., Olsen, R.G., and Krakowka, S.: Systemic and local intestinal antibody response in dogs given both infective and inactivated canine parvovirus.  Am. J. Vet. Res. 44: 1989 1995, 1983.

 6.    Nara, P.L., Dunlop, N.M., Robey, W.G., Olsen, R.G., and Fischinger, P.J.:  Lipoprotein associated oncornavirus inactivating factor in the genus Mus:  Effects on murine leukemia viruses of laboratory and exotic mice.  Cancer Res. 47: 667 672, 1987.

 7.    Nara, P.L., Robey, W.G., Arthur, L.O., Gonda, M.A., Asher, D.M., Yanagihara, R., Gibbs, C.J., Jr., Gajdusek, D.C., and Fischinger, P.J.: Simultaneous isolation of simian foamy virus and HTLV III/LAV from chimpanzee lymphocytes following HTLV III or LAV inoculation. Arch. Virol. 92:  183 186, 1987.

 8.    Ward, J.M., O'Leary, T.J., Baskin, G.B., Benveniste, R., Harris, C.A., Nara, P.L., and Rhodes, R.H.:  Immunohistochemical localization of human and simian immunodeficiency viral antigens in fixed tissue sections.  Am. J. Pathol. 127:  199-205, 1987.

 9.    Nara, P.L., Robey, W.G., Gonda, M.A., and Fischinger, P.J.:  Absence of cytotoxic antibody to HTLV III infected cells in man and its induction in animals after infection or immunization with purified gp120.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 3797-3801, 1987.

10.    Krohn, K., Robey, W.G., Putney, S., Arthur, L., Nara, P., Fischinger, P., Gallo, R.C., Wong Staal, F., and Ranki, A.:  Specific cellular immune response and neutralizing antibodies in goats immunized with native or recombinant envelope proteins derived from HTLV IIIB, and in HIV-1 infected men.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 4994-4998, 1987.

11.    Nara, P.L., Robey, W.G., Arthur, L.O., and Fischinger, P.J.: Persistent infection of chimpanzees with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1):  Serological responses and properties of reisolated viruses.  J. Virol. 61:  3173-3180, 1987.

12.    Arthur, L.O., Pyle, S.W., Nara, P.L., Bess, J.W., Jr., Gonda, M.A., Kelliher, J.C., Gilden, R.V., Robey, W.G., Bolognesi, D.P., Gallo, R.C., and Fischinger, P.J.:  Serological responses in chimpanzees inoculated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) subunit vaccine.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:  8583-8587, 1987.

13.    Nara, P.L., Hatch, W.C., Dunlop, N.M., Robey, W.G., and Fischinger, P.J.:  Simple, rapid, quantitative micro syncytium forming assay for the detection of neutralizing antibody against infectious HTLV III/LAV.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 3: 283-302, 1987. 

14.    Robey, W.G., Nara, P.L., Poore, C.M., Popovic, M., McLane, M.F., Barin, F., Essex, M., and Fischinger, P.J.:  Rapid assessment of relationships among HTLV-III/LAV isolates by oligopeptide analyses of external envelope glycoproteins.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 3: 401-408, 1987.

15.    Zweig, M., Showalter, Bladen, S.D., Gilden, R.V., Robey, W.G., Nara, P.L., and Fischinger, P.J.: Preparation and characterization of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein gp41.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 4:  51-62, 1987.

16.    Nara, P.L., and Fischinger, P.J.: Quantitative infectivity microassay for HIV-1 and 2.  Nature 331: 469-470, 1988.

17.    Zagury, D., Bernard, J., Cheynier, R., Desportes, I., Leonard, R., Fouchard, M., Reveil, B., Hele, D.I., Lurhuma, Z., Mbayo, K., Wane, J., Saluan, J., Goussard, B., Dechazal, L., Burny, A., Nara, P.L., and Gallo, R.C.:  A group-specific anamnestic immune reaction against HIV-1 induced by determinants of the viral envelope glycoprotein, gp160:  A candidate vaccine prototype against AIDS.  Nature 332:  728-731, 1988.

18.    Nara, P.L., Robey, W.G., Pyle, S.W., Hatch, W.C., Dunlop, N.M., Bess, J.W., Jr., Kelliher, J.C., Arthur, L.O., and Fischinger, P.J.:  Purified envelope glycoproteins from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induce individual type-specific neutralizing antibodies.  J. Virol. 62:  2622-2628, 1988.

19.    Lifson, J.D., Hwang, K.M., Nara, P.L., Dunlop, N.M., Fraser, B., Paget, M., and Eiden, L.E.: Synthetic CD4 peptide derivates that inhibit HIV-1 infection and cytopathology.  Science 241: 712-715, 1988.

20.    Lairmore, M.D., Kaplan, J.E., Daniel, M.D., Nicholas, W.L., Nara, P.L., McClure, H.M., McVicar, J.W., McKinney, R.W., Hendry, M., Gerone, P., Rayfield, M., Johnsen, D.O., Purcell, R., Gibbs, J., Allan, J., Ribas, J.L., Klein, H.J., Jahrling, P.B., and Brown, B.:  Guidelines for the prevention of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in laboratory workers and animal handlers.  J. Med. Primatol. 18:  167-174, 1989.

21.    Larimore, M.D.,Kaplan, J.E., Rayfield, M., Brown, B., McVicar, J.W., Daniel, M.D., Lerche, N.W., Nara, P.L., McClure, H.M., McKinney, R.W., Johnsen, D.O., Purcell, R., Gibbs, C.J., Jr., Hendry, M., Gerone, P., Allan, J., Ribas, J.L., Klein, H.J., and Jahrling, P.B.:  Guidelines to prevent simian immunodeficiency virus infection in laboratory workers and animal handlers.  MMWR 37: 693-704, 1988.

22.    Esparza, J., et al.:  Report of a WHO workshop on the measurement and significance of neutralizing antibody to HIV and SIV.  London, 3-5 October 1988, Curr. Sci. pp. 269-274.

23.    Nicol, I., Messinger D., Dubouch, P., Bernard, J., Desportes, I., Jouffre, R., Snart, R., Nara, P., Gallo, R.C., and Zagury, D.:  Use of Old World monkeys for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome research.  J. Med. Primatol. 18:  227-236, 1989.
24.    Nara, P., Hatch, W., Kessler, J., Kelliher, J., Carter, S., Ward, J., Looney, D., Ehrlich, G., Gendelman, H., and Gallo, R.C.:  The biology of HIV-IIIB infection in the chimpanzee:  In vivo and in vitro correlations.  J. Med. Primatol. 18:  343-355, 1989.

25.    Pyle, S.W., Morein, B., Bess, J.W., Jr., Akerblom, L., Nara, P.L., Nigida, S.M., Jr., Lerche, N.W., Robey, G., Gallo, R.C., Fischinger, P.J., and Arthur L.O.:  Immune response to immunostimulatory complexes (ISCOMs) prepared from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) or the HIV-1 external envelope glycoprotein (gp120).  Vaccine 7: 465-473, l989.  
26.    Nicol, I., Falmminio-Zola, G., Dubouch, P., Bernard, J., Snart, R., Jouffre, R., Reveil, B., Fouchard, M., Desportes, I., Nara, P., Gallo, R., and Zagury, D.:  Persistent HIV-2 infection of Rhesus macaque, baboon, and mangabeys.  Intervirology 30: 258-267, 1989.

27.    Arthur, L.A., Bess, J.W., Jr., Waters, D.J., Pyle, S.W., Kelliher, J.C., Nara, P.L., Krohn, K., Robey, W.G., Langlois, A.J., Gallo, R.C., and Fischinger, P.J.:  Challenge of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) immunized with human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein, gp120.  J. Virol. 63:  5046-5053, 1989.

28.    Nara, P.L., Hwang, K.M., Rausch, D., Lifson, J.D., and Eiden, L.:  CD4-based anti-receptors peptide inhibit HIV infectivity in vitro at multiple stages of the viral life cycle.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 7139-7143, 1989.

29.    Goudsmit, J., Kuiken, C., and Nara, P.:  Linear vs conformational variation of V3 neutralization domains of HIV-1 during experimental and natural infection.  AIDS 3:  5119-5123, 1989.

30.    Ebbesen, P., Petersen, P.M., Jepsen, A., Norskov-Lauritsen, N., Nielsen, C.M., Philipsen, M.P., Arenholt-Bindslev, D., and Nara, P.:  Explants of human oral epithelium exposed to viruses and cancer chemotherapeutics.  J. Oral Pathol. 18:  481-484, 1989.

31.    Zwart, G., de Jong, J.-J., van der Hoek, L., Wolfs, T., Tersmette, M., Smit, L., Nara, P., de Ronde, A., and Goudsmit, J.:  Predominance of  HIV-1 serotype distinct from LAV-1/HTLV-IIIB.  Lancet  335:  474, 1990.

32.    Hosoi, S., Borsos, T., Dunlop, N., and Nara, P.L.:  Heat labile, complement-like factor(s) of animal sera prevent HIV-1 infectivity in vitro.   J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 3:  366-371, 1990.

33.    Profy, A.T., Salinas, P.A., Eckler, L.I., Dunlop, N.M., Nara, P.L. and Putney, S.C.:  Epitopes recognized by the neutralizing antibodies of an HIV-1-infected individual.  J. Immunol.  144:  4641-4647, 1990.

34.    Tsai, W.-P., Nara, P.L., Kung, H.-F., and Oroszlan, S.:  Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus infectivity by chloroquine.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 6: 481-489, 1990.

35.    Emini, E.A., Nara, P.L., Schleif, W.A., Lewis, J.A., Davide, J.P., Lee, D.R., Kessler, J., Conley, S., Matsushita, S., Putney, S.D., Gerety, R.J. and Eichberg, J.W.:  Antibody-mediated in vitro neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 abolishes infectivity for chimpanzees.  J. Virol.  64 (8):  3674-3678, 1990.

36.    Layne, S.P., Merges, M.J., Dembo, M., Spouge, J.L. and Nara, P.L.:  HIV requires multiple gp120 molecules for CD4-mediated infection.  Nature  346:  277-279, 1990.

37.    Nara, P.L., Smit, L., Dunlop, N., Hatch, W., Merges, M., Waters, D., Kelliher, J., Gallo, R.C., Fischinger, P.J. and Goudsmit, J.: Emergence of viruses resistant to neutralization by V3-specific antibodies in experimental human immunodeficiency virus type 1 IIIB infection of chimpanzees.  J. Virol.  64:  3779-3791, 1990.

38.    Lee-Huang, S., Huang, P.L., Nara, P.L., Chen, H.-C., Kung, H.-F., Huang, P., Huang, H.I., and Huang, P.L.:  MAP 30:  A new inhibitor of HIV-1 infection and replication.  FEBS Lett. 272:  12-18, 1990.

39.    Vujcic, L., Katzenstein, D., Martin, M., Quinnan, G., and Collaborating Laboratories: International collaborative study to compare assays for antibodies that neutralize human immunodeficiency virus.  AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses  6: 847-853, 1990.

40.    Girard, M., Kieny, M.-P., Pinter, A., Barre-Sinoussi, F., Nara, P., Kolbe, H., Kusumi, K., Chaput, A., Reinhart, T., Muchmore, E., Ronco, J., Kaczorek, M.,  Bomard, E., Gluckman, J.-C. and Fultz, P.N.:  Immunization of chimpanzee confers protection against challenge with HIV.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88: 542-546, 1991.

41.    Hosmalin, A., Nara, P.L., Zeig, M., Lerche, N.W., Cease, K.B., Gard, E.A., Markham, P.D., Putney, S.D., Daniel M.D., Desrosiers, R.C. and Berzofsky, J.A.:  Priming with helper T-cell epitope peptides enhances the antibody response to the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 in primates.  J. Immunol. 146:  1667-1673, 1991.

42.    Gendelman, H.E., Ehrlich, G., Baca, L.M., Conley, S., Ribas, J., Kalter, D.C., Meltzer, M.S., Poiez, B. and Nara, P.:  The inability of human immunodeficiency virus to infect chimpanzee monocytes can be overcome by serial viral passage in vivo.  J. Virol. 65:  3853-3863, 1991.

43.    Layne, S.P., Merges, M.J., Spouge, J.L., Dembo, M., and Nara, P.L.:  Blocking of human immunodeficiency virus infection depends on cell density and viral stock age.  J. Virol. 94:  3293-3300, 1991.

44.    Kang, C.-Y., Nara, P., Chamat, S., Caralli, V., Ryskamp, T., Haigwood, N., Newman, R., and Kohler, H.:  Evidence for non-V3 specific neutralizing antibodies in HIV-1 infected humans which interfere with gp120/CD4 binding.  Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 88: 6171-6175, 1991.

45.    Akerblom, L., Nara, P., Dunlop, N., and Morein, B.: Cross-neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 in mice after immunization with gp160 iscoms. Dissection of the immune response. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 7:  621- 627, 1991.

46.    Haigwood, N.L., Nara, P., Brooks, E., Van Nest, G., Ott, G., Higgins, K., Dunlop, N., Scandella, C., Eichberg, J., and Steimer, K.:  Native but not denatured recombinant HIV-1 gp120 generates broad spectrum neutralizing antibodies in baboons.  J. Virol. 66: 172-182, 1991.

47.    Tsai, W-P., Hirose, K., Nara, P.L., Kuang, Y., Conley, S., Li, B., Kung, H. and Matsushima, K.:  Decrease in cytokine production by HIV-infected macrophages in response to LPS-mediated activation.  J. Lymphokine Cytokine Res. 10: 421-9, 1991.

48.    Kang, C-Y., Nara, P., Chamat, S., Caralli, V., Chen, A., Nguyen, M-L., Yoshiyama, H., Morrow, W.J.W., Ho, D., and Kohler, H.:  A monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody elicits broadly neutralizing anti-gp120 antibodies in monkeys.  Proc Natl Acad Sci 89: 2546-50, 1992.

49.    Fultz, P.N., Nara, P., Barre-Sinoussi, F., Chaput, A., Greenberg, M.L., Muchmore, E., Kieny, M-P., and Girard, M.:  Vaccine protection of chimpanzees against challenge with HIV-1 infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Science           256:  1687-90, 1992.

50.    Layne, S.P., Merges, M.J., Dembo, M., Spouge, J.L., Conley, S.R., Moore, J.P., Raine, J.L., Renz, H., Gelderbloom, H.R., and Nara, P.L.:  Factors underlying spontaneous inactivation and susceptibility to neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus.  Virology 189: 695-714, 1992.